Parolas Grammatical

Grammatical Words

§134

Nota: Le spheras de grammatica e vocabulario imbrica proque ambes se preoccupa de ille "parve parolas" que es necessari pro exprimer le relation inter le vocabulos o expressiones que constitue un enunciation complete. Iste parolas, hic pro convenientia nominate "particulas grammatic," ha functiones grammatic. Assi illos es classificate generalmente non in un proprie categoria, sed como prepositiones, conjunctiones, pronomines, adverbios, e similes.
Note: The spheres of grammar and vocabulary overlap in that both are concerned with those "little words" which are needed to express the relationship between the words or phrases making up a complete statement. These words are grammatical functionaries (here conveniently labeled "grammatical words"), and as such they are generally classed not in a special category of their own but as prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, adverbs, and the like.
Ab le puncto de vista de Interlingua "particulas grammatic," totevia, forma un gruppo de significantia peculiar proque lor extension international comparate con le grande majoritate de vocabulos de Interlingua es assatis restricte. Pro le majoritate del usatores de Interlingua le "particulas grammatic" constitue le unic obstaculo seriose in apprender le lingua.
From the point of view of Interlingua "grammatical words" do, however, form a group of peculiar significance because their international range compared with that of the bulk of Interlingua words is fairly restricted. For most users of Interlingua the "grammatical words" constitute the one and only serious learning obstacle.
Le extension restricte de internationalitate del "particulas grammatic" es debite al facto que lor equivalentes in le varie linguas national es si intimemente associate con cosas basic de structura grammatic que illos non pare haber invadite le dominio de altere linguas a grande mesura. Un parola francese como {cigarette} ha cambiate al anglese sin multe difficultate; le parola francese {sans} como usate in le anglese retene su sapor estranier post multe seculos.
The restricted international range of "grammatical words" is due to the fact that their counterparts in the various national languages are so closely associated with matters of basic grammatical structure that they seem to be prevented from invading the realm of other languages on a large scale. A French word like cigarette has turned English without much trouble; the French word sans as used in English retains its foreign flavor after these many centuries.
Pro illustrar ulteriormente: Le parlator de un altere lingua – que nos dice un francese – pote trovar difficile comprender le enunciation anglese simple:
Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town.
Ille es adjutate per le version:
Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town.
E como un ultime recurso, il ha in plus le possibilitate que ille pote comprender le version:
Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city.
To illustrate further: The speaker of another language - let us say a Frenchman - may find it difficult to understand the simple English statement: "Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town." He may be helped by the version: "Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town." And as a last resort there is still the possibility that he may understand the version: "Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city."
Le prime version se compone de parolas specificamente anglese. Le ultime version usa in vice, in tanto que possibile, variantes anglese de parolas international que un francese comprende proque illos occurre in su proprie lingua – in formas un pauco differente, i.e. specificamente francese.
The first version is composed of peculiarly English words. The last version uses instead as far as possible the English variants of international words which the Frenchman understands because they occur - in slightly different, that is, peculiarly French forms - in his own language.
Con un grado major o minor de artificio, il es possibile parlar e scriber qualcunque lingua occidental in vocabulos que es quasi integremente variantes national de materia representate in le vocabulario international. Sed il remane in omne casos un corpore substantial de vocabulos que resiste a iste artificio de internationalisar un lingua national. In le exemplo justo usate, iste corpore de recalcitrante vocabulos es representate con parolas como {our}, {to}, {after}, {we}, {from}, e {the}. Omne istes es particulas grammatic ben que alicunes, como {after} e {we}, combina un function grammatic con un significato clarmente palpabile.
With a greater or lesser degree of artifice it is possible to speak and write any one of the Western languages in words which are almost entirely national variants of material represented in the international vocabulary. But there remains in all cases a substantial body of words which resist this trick of internationalizing a national language. In the example just used this body of recalcitrants is represented by words like our, to, after, we, from, and the. All of them are grammatical words although some of them, as after and we, combine a grammatical function with a clearly palpable meaning.
Le Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) include un stock multo liberal de particulas grammatic. In addition al particulas que es international secundo le definition functionante del termino in le Dictionario, il ha numerose formas que pareva compatibile con le character general del vocabulario international assi que lor inclusion poteva servir a allargar le appello e le utilitate del Dictionario.
The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) includes a very liberal supply of grammatical words. In addition to those which happen to be international in accordance with the Dictionary's working definition of the term, there are numerous forms which seemed compatible with the general character of the international vocabulary so that their inclusion could serve to broaden the appeal and usefulness of the Dictionary.
Un lista minimal de particulas grammatic seque. Iste lista se restringe al particulas considerate indispensabile pro le operation del lingua e pote esser supplementate per material additional – specialmente expressiones con functiones grammatic – prendite del IED. Un numero de parolas que le IED lista in duo equalmente correcte formas appare in basso solmente in un alternativa. Isto non implica que le secunde es considerate minus desirabile. Le pares in question es:
alicun -
alcun
aliquando -
alquando
aliquanto -
alquanto
alique -
alco
a pena -
apena
depost -
depois
haber -
haver
hic -
ci
illac -
la
illa -
ella
ille -
celle
jam -
ja
pauc -
poc
secundo -
secun
semper -
sempre
si non -
sinon
subinde -
sovente
tanto -
tan
vice -
vece


A minimum list of grammatical words follows. It is restricted to items considered indispensable for the operation of the language and may be enlarged by further material - especially phrases with grammatical functions - drawn from the IED. A number of words which the IED lists in two equally correct forms appears below in one alternate only. This does not imply that the second is considered less desirable. The pairs in question are: alicun - alcun; aliquando - alquando; aliquanto - alquanto; alique - alco; a pena - apena; depost - depois; haber - haver; hic - ci; illac - la; illa - ella; ille - celle; jam - ja; pauc - poc; secundo - secun; semper - sempre; si non - sinon; subinde - sovente; tanto - tan; vice - vece.


a
to; at
ab
prep since, from
alias
otherwise, in another manner; alias; at another time
alibi
elsewhere
ali(c)-
any-, some-
alicubi
somewhere; anywhere
alicun
some, any; a few;
alicun cosa
something, anything
alicuno
someone, somebody; anyone, anybody
aliquando
sometime; at any time
aliquanto
somewhat, to some degree
alique
pron something, anything
alique
adv somewhat
alora
then; in that case, consequently
alto
top
in alto
up; upwards; upstairs; on top
ambe
adj both;
ambes
pron both
an
interrogative particle; conj whether
an il habe le libro?
has he the book?
ancora
adv still, yet; interj encore
anque
also, too;
anque io
me too
non solo ... ma anque
not only ... but also
ante
prep before, in front of; earlier than; above
ante
adv before, ahead; earlier; forward
ante que
before
ante-heri
day before yesterday
a pena
hardly, scarcely
apud
near, with, at, by
assatis
adv enough; rather, fairly, quite
assi
thus, so
assi ... como
as ... as
avante
before, in front, ahead; forward
basso
bottom
a basso
down, downward
in basso
down, below, downward; downstairs
bastante
adj enough, sufficient
bastante
adv enough, sufficiently
ben que
although
bis
twice; encore
cata
adj each;
cata uno
each (one)
causa
cause
a causa de
because of
certo
certainly
circa
around, about; approximately
como
how; as, like;
como si
as though, as if
comocunque
however, in whatever way
con
with, together with; by means of
concernente
concerning
contra
prep opposite, facing; against
contra
adv opposite, facing; on the contrary
cuje
whose
-cunque
-ever
de
from, since; of, belonging to; made of; with, by means of
de (+ inf)
to
deman
tomorrow
deman matino
tomorrow morning
deman vespere
tomorrow night
depost
adv afterwards, later
depost
prep after, since
depost que
since, from the time that
desde
prep since, from
dum
while, as long as; until; provided that, if only
dunque
therefore
durante
during
durante que
while, whilst
e
and
e ... e
both ... and
ecce
lo!, see!, behold!; here is, here are
ergo
therefore, accordingly, consequently, then, ergo
esque
interrogative particle
esque ille ha le libro?
has he the book?
et cetera, etc.
and so forth, and so on, et cetera, etc.
etiam
also, likewise, too; even, even yet, yet;
non solmente ... sed etiam
not only... but also
ex
out of, from
excepte
except, excepting
extra
adv without, on the outside; besides, in addition, extra;
extra
prep outside of, without, beyond; except, excepting; besides, in addition to
foras
adv out of doors, outside, out; from without
foras
prep beyond, except
foras de
outside of, without
foras de se
beside oneself
forsan
perhaps, maybe
gratis
gratis, free of charge
haber
to have
il ha
there is, there are
heri
yesterday
hic
here
de hic a (un hora)
(an hour) from now
usque (a) hic
up to here, thus far; up to now, hitherto;
hic juncte
herewith
hodie
today
ibi
there
ibidem
in the same place; ibidem ibid.,; Ib.
idem
the same (thing); idem; id.
igitur
adv/conj then, therefore, thereupon
il
impers pron it
illa
she, her
illac
there
ille
he, it; him; that, the former
illes
they; them
illo
it
in
in, into
infra
adv below, underneath, beneath
infra
prep below, under, beneath
insimul
together
inter
between, among
interim
meanwhile, in the meantime
intertanto
meanwhile, in the meantime
intra
adv/prep within
intro
inwardly, internally, on the inside, in
io
I
ipse
myself, yourself, himself, etc.
hodie ipse
this very day
iste
this, the latter
ita
thus, so; just so, yes; and so, consequent]y; accordingly
jam
already, at once, right away; just now, a moment ago; indeed, surely
non... jam
no longer
jammais
ever, at any time
non... jammais
never
jammais!
never!
justo
just, exactly
justo nunc, justo ora
just now, right now
juxta
adv near, near by
juxta
prep near, near to, next to
la
her
le
art the
le
pron him
les
them
lo
it
lo que
that which, what
loco
place
in loco de
instead of
in su loco
instead
longe
far; away, far away
de longe
from afar, from a distance
lontan
distant, far-off
lor
their
lore
their
ma
but
non solo ... ma anque
not only... but also
malgrado
in spite of
maniera
manner, way
de maniera que
so that
me
me
melio
adv better
tanto melio
so much the better
melior
adj better
le melior
the best
mesme
same; myself, yourself, himself, etc. (as in "the king himself")
mesmo
likewise; even
hodie mesmo
this very day
ora mesmo
right now
mi
my
mie
mine
minus
less; minus
a minus que
unless
al minus
at least
totos minus ille
all but him
le minus
the least
multo
very; much
nam
for
nemo
no one, nobody
ni
neither, nor, also not
nihil, nil
nothing
nimie
adj too much, too many
nimis
adv too, too much
no
adj no
non
not; no
si non
if not; except, unless it be
nondum
not yet
nonne
interrogative particle is it not?
il es ver, nonne?
it is true, isn't it?
nonobstante
prep despite, in spite of
nonobstante
adv nevertheless
nos
us, we
nostre
our, ours
nulle
adj not any, no; null, worthless, without legal force
nullemente
in no way, not at all
nunc
now
nunquam
never
nusquam
nowhere
o
or
o ... o
either ... or
olim
once, formerly; at a future time, sometime (in the future)
omne
adj all; each, every
de omne mano
from every hand
de omne latere
from every side
in omne caso
in any case
omne cosa
everything
omnes
pron all
on
one
ora
now
parte
part
a parte
apart, aside
in parte
in part
del parte de
on the part of
de parte a parte
through and through
in nulle parte
nowhere
passato
ago
pauc
adj little, not much; few
un pauc (de)
a little
pauc a pauc
little by little
in pauc
shortly, before long
pauco
adv little
per
through; during, throughout; by, through, by means of; per
perque
adv/conj why; because
plus
more; plus
le plus
the most
de plus
furthermore, besides
de plus in plus
more and more
in plus
further more, in addition, also
al plus
at best
plus o minus
more or less
non ... plus
no more; no longer
pois
adv afterwards, thereafter; conj for
pois que
since, as, because
post
adv behind, back, backwards; afterwards, after
post
prep behind; after
post que
since, because
postea
afterwards, thereafter
postquam
conj after; as soon as
potius
rather; sooner
presso
adv/prep near, close
a presso de
at the home of; in care of; with, among
presto
presto, quickly, quick as a wink
preter
adj past, beyond
preter
prep past, along, alongside of; beyond; except, excepting; in addition to
pridem
long ago
pro
for, in favor of; in exchange for, in place of
pro (+ inf)
(in order) to
proque
adv/conj why; because
qual
which; what
le qual
which; that; who
qualcunque
any, whatever
quando
adv/conj when
quandocunque
whenever
quante
adj how much, how many
quanto
adv as much as; as far as
quanto ... tanto
the ... the
quanto a
as for
quare
wherefore, why
quasi
almost, nearly; in a certain sense, in a way
quasi que
as if
que
interr pron what
que
rel pron who, whom, which, that
qui
who, whom
de qui
whose
quia
because, for
quicunque
whoever, whomever, whosoever
quo
adv whither, where; wherefore
quo
conj so that, in order that
re
about, concerning
retro
back, backwards; ago
a retro
backwards
salvo
save, but, but for
salvo que
save that, but that
satis
enough; rather, somewhat
esser satis
to be enough
haber satis
to have enough
satis de (tempore, etc.)
enough (time, etc.)
se
refl pron himself; herself; itself; themselves
secundo
prep (following) after; along, by; according to
secundo que
according as
sed
but
semper
always
si
adv thus, so; yes
si ... como
as... as
si
conj if; whether
si non
if not; except, unless it be
sia
be, may be, let there be
sia ... sia
be (it) ... or be (it); whether ... or
qual que sia
whatever, whatsoever
sin
prep without
sol
adj sole, alone, only
viver sol
to live alone
sentir se sol
to feel lonesome, lonely
solo
adv only, merely
non solo ... ma anque
not only... but also
su
his, her, its
sub
prep under, below, beneath
subinde
immediately after, just after, forthwith; repeatedly, frequently, often, from time to time
subito
suddenly, unexpectedly
subtus
adv below, beneath, underneath
sue
his, hers, its
super
prep on, upon; on top of; over, above; about, concerning, on
super
adv above, on top
super toto
above all
supra
prep above, over
supra
adv on the top, above
sur
on, upon; on top of
tal
such, such a
tal e tal
such and such
talmente
adv so
un libro talmente belle
so beautiful a book, such a beautiful book
tamen
yet, however, nevertheless, not withstanding
tante
adj so much, so many
tante per cento
so much per hundred, percent age
tante ... como
as much, as many... as
tanto
adv so, so much
tanto ... como
as much... as
in tanto que
in as much as
tanto plus ... que
all the more... that
quanto ... tanto
the... the
tarde
adj late
plus tarde
later; later on
al plus tarde
at the latest
te
you, thee; yourself, thyself
tosto
presently, soon, promptly
plus tosto
rather, sooner
si tosto que
as soon as
tote
adj all; every, each
tote le (homines)
all (men)
totos
all, everyone
de tote (le) corde
wholeheartedly
tote (le) duo
both
totevia
yet, still, nevertheless
toto
n all, everything
le toto
the whole
super toto
above all
ante toto
before all
post toto
after all
del toto
at all
in toto
entirely, wholly, in toto
toto
adv all, quite, wholly
trans
across, over, beyond, on the farther side of
troppo
too, too much
troppo (de) (libros, etc.)
too many (books, etc.)
troppo (de) (aqua, etc.)
too much (water, etc.)
de troppo
superfluous, in the way, de trop
tu
your, thy
tue
yours, thine
tunc
then
ubi
adv where
ubi
conj where; when; as soon as; wherewith; in which
a ubi
where, whither
de ubi
from where, whence
ubicunque
wherever
ubique
everywhere; anywhere, wheresoever, wherever
ultra
adv on the other side, beyond, farther
ultra
prep on the farther side of; beyond, past; besides
ultra illo
besides, moreover
ultra que
aside from the fact that
un
a, an
le un le altere
one another, each other
le unes le alteres
one another, each other
uno
indef pron one
unquam
ever, at any time
usquam
somewhere
usque
prep (all the way) to, up to; till, until
usque nunc
up to now
verso
towards, to
via
adv away; off
via
prep by way of, via
via!
go away!, begone!
vice
turn, stead; time (as in "three times")
alicun vices
sometimes
un vice
once; on one occasion; formerly
un vice que
once, once that
in vice de
instead of; a vices: at times
altere vice
a second time
plure vices
several times, repeatedly
viste
considering
viste que
considering that
voluntarie
willingly, readily, gladly, with pleasure
vos
you; yourself, yourselves
vostre
your, yours
ya
adv indeed, certainly, of course
ya (io lo crede)
(I) do (believe it)